Datamyne do Brasil
Call (11) 3868-1842

Foreign Trade Glossary

  • BOL (Bill of lading)The detailed list of a shipment of goods in the form of a receipt given by the carrier to the person consigning the goods.
  • Customs Declarations (also called DUA, Despacho, Pedimento, Refrendo): The document used to declare Customs transactions such as entry, exit and transit of goods.
  • DUA: The standard, single document used to declare Customs transactions such as entry, exit and transit of goods.
  • FREE ZONE: Free-trade zone, also called foreign-trade zone, an area within which goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and reexported without the intervention of the customs authorities. Only when the goods are moved to consumers within the country in which the zone is located do they become subject to the prevailing customs duties. Free-trade zones are organized around major seaports, international airports, and national frontiers—areas with many geographic advantages for trade. Examples include Hong Kong, Singapore, Colón (Panama), Copenhagen, Stockholm, Gdańsk (Poland), Los Angeles, and New York City. Alternative devices such as the bonded warehouse and associated systems are used in some large seaports (e.g., London and Amsterdam).The primary purpose of a free-trade zone is to remove from a seaport, airport, or border those hindrances to trade caused by high tariffs and complex customs regulations. Among the advantages of the system are the quicker turnaround of ships and planes through the reduction in formalities of customs examinations and also the ability to fabricate, refinish, and store goods freely.
  • INCOTERMS: International Commercial Terms. This is a set of international rules used to interpret commercial terms defined by the International Chamber of Commerce. Incoterms are intended to establish defined criteria regarding cost sharing and risk transfer between export and import entities. Incoterms regulate the delivery of goods, transfer of risk, cost sharing and paperwork requirements. They do not regulate payment methods or applicable law. There are 13 terms: EXW, FCA, FAS, FOB, CFR, CIF, CPT, CIP, DES, DEQ, DAF, DDP and DDU.

CIF: Costs, insurance and freight.

FOB: Free on board.

CFR: Cost and freight

  • MANIFEST: The list of the cargo on a ship.
  • TARIFF: The duty or tax paid on each country, based on Harmonized System.
  • TEMPORARY ADMISSION: The Customs designation that allows certain goods to enter a country duty and tax free if they meet qualifying conditions; namely, the goods are imported with a specific purpose, with the intention of being exported within a defined period of time, either in the original state or having undergone certain transformations or repairs.

RULES FOR ANY MODE OR MODES OF TRANSPORT

  • EXW Ex Works

“Ex Works” means that the seller delivers when it places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or at another named place (i.e. works, factory, warehouse, etc.). The seller does not need to load the goods on any collecting vehicle, nor does it need to clear the goods for export, where such clearance is applicable.

  • FCA Free Carrier

“Free Carrier” means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier or another person nominated by the buyer at the seller’s premises or another named place. The parties are well advised to specify as clearly as possible the point within the named place of delivery, as the risk passes to the buyer at that point.

  • CPT Carriage Paid To

“Carriage Paid To” means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier or another person nominated by the seller at an agreed place (if any such place is agreed between parties) and that the seller must contract for and pay the costs of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named place of destination.

  • CIP Carriage And Insurance Paid To

“Carriage and Insurance Paid to” means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier or another person nominated by the seller at an agreed place (if any such place is agreed between parties) and that the seller must contract for and pay the costs of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named place of destination.

‘The seller also contracts for insurance cover against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The buyer should note that under CIP the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover. Should the buyer wish to have more insurance protection, it will need either to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make its own extra insurance arrangements.”

  • DAT Delivered At Terminal

“Delivered at Terminal” means that the seller delivers when the goods, once unloaded from the arriving means of transport, are placed at the disposal of the buyer at a named terminal at the named port or place of destination. “Terminal” includes a place, whether covered or not, such as a quay, warehouse, container yard or road, rail or air cargo terminal. The seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to and unloading them at the terminal at the named port or place of destination.

  • DAP Delivered At Place

“Delivered at Place” means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport ready for unloading at the named place of destination. The seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to the named place.

  • DDP Delivered Duty Paid

“Delivered Duty Paid” means that the seller delivers the goods when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer, cleared for import on the arriving means of transport ready for unloading at the named place of destination. The seller bears all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the place of destination and has an obligation to clear the goods not only for export but also for import, to pay any duty for both export and import and to carry out all customs formalities.

 

RULES FOR SEA AND INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT

  • FAS Free Alongside Ship

“Free Alongside Ship” means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel (e.g., on a quay or a barge) nominated by the buyer at the named port of shipment. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the goods are alongside the ship, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards.

  • FOB Free On Board

“Free On Board” means that the seller delivers the goods on board the vessel nominated by the buyer at the named port of shipment or procures the goods already so delivered. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the goods are on board the vessel, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards.

  • CFR Cost and Freight

“Cost and Freight” means that the seller delivers the goods on board the vessel or procures the goods already so delivered. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the goods are on board the vessel. the seller must contract for and pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination.

  • CIF Cost, Insurance and Freight

“Cost, Insurance and Freight” means that the seller delivers the goods on board the vessel or procures the goods already so delivered. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the goods are on board the vessel. The seller must contract for and pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination.

‘The seller also contracts for insurance cover against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The buyer should note that under CIF the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover. Should the buyer wish to have more insurance protection, it will need either to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make its own extra insurance arrangements.”